Brendon Gill


Analytical Chemist

Hello! I’m Dr. Brendon Gill, an analytical chemist based in New Zealand. I am passionate about food chemistry and the application of analytical techniques to furthering our understanding of milk, in particular, the micronutrient composition of dairy foods. A key focus of my work is the development of analytical methods to facilitate demonstrating product compliance against strict global regulations for infant formula. I routinely participate as a technical expert within international standards organisations in the development of reference standards for the analysis of vitamin and micronutrients in infant formula and adult nutritional products.

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Latest publications in press:


  • 23 Sept 2021

    International Vitamin Conference

    Attended the 6th International Vitamin Conference virtually. Gave a recorded presentation on the analysis of α‑tocopherol steroisomers by chiral chromatography.

  • 28 Aug 2020

    AOAC Annual Meeting & Conference

    Attended the 135th AOAC Conference virtually. As chair of the Phospholipids Working Group, gave a presentation to the SPIFAN Stakeholder Panel on the draft SMPR.

  • 05 Aug 2021

    Analytical Methods Week

    Attended the SPIFAN Expert Review Panel Meetings to disuss methods of analysis for lactoferrin and human milk oligosaccharides.

  • 24 May 2021

    Paper accepted for publication

    Paper accepted for publication entitled "Aflatoxin M1 binding to bovine α- and κ- caseins demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance" to be published in the International Dairy Journal. This paper describes a qualitative analysis confirming for the first time that aflatoxin M1 binds specifically with α‑casein and κ‑casein, but that any interaction with β‑casein or the whey proteins is negligible.


2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry announced

from news bulletin published on website—06 October 2021

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Nobel Medal

Scientists aiming to enhance infant formula

from a story published on website—21 September 2021

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Overeating is not the main cause of obesity; it’s all about what you’re eating

from a story published on news-medical website—13 September 2021

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Junk Food



The variation of nucleotides in mammalian milk and the effect of dietary nucleotides on infant nutrition.

Nucleosides and nucleotides are a group of structurally related bioactive components present that exhibit a diverse range of nutritional benefits to infants. The nucleotide content in milk and the health benefits these impart have been fertile topics of research in recent years. Due to the role nucleotides play in metabolism, and in order to resemble more closely the nucleotide profile of human milk, infant formula has been routinely supplemented with nucleotides. There is a distinct need for an accurate and precise rapid, analytical method for the routine product compliance analysis of nucleotides in a wide range of infant formula. The development of an analytical method to measure total potentially available nucleotide has been an important contribution to further understanding the distribution of nucleosides and nucleotides, which has important implications for infant nutrition.

Development and application of an HPLC method for analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in milk and infant formulas Determination of nucleotides and nucleosides in milks and pediatric formulas: a review An HPLC method for routine analysis of nucleotides in pediatric formulas Determination of total potentially available nucleosides in bovine milk Analysis of nucleotides in infant formula formula by HPLC: First Action 2011.20 Determination of total potentially available nucleosides in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk Analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in infant formula by LC-MS. Analysis of nucleotides in infant formulas by HPLC-UV: collaborative study


The challenges and techniques used for the analysis of B‑vitamins dairy products and other foods.

B‑vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play critical roles in cellular metabolism. Each B vitamin is either a co‑factor (generally a co‑enzyme) for key metabolic processes or is a precursor needed to make one. Though grouped together and share similar names, B-group vitamins are chemically distinct compounds that found together in many foods including dairy. For this reason these analytes are often analysed together.

Biotin content of paediatric formulae, early lactation milk and seasonal bovine milk powders by biosensor immunoassay A rapid method for the determination of biotin and folic acid in dairy products by LC‑MS/MS The analysis of vitamin B12 in milk and infant formula: a review Rapid method for the determination of vitamins B1 and B5 in milk-based nutritional products by LC‑MS/MS

Vitamin D

The challenges and techniques used for the analysis of vitamin D in dairy products and other foods.

Vitamin D as ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3), is a secosterol that plays a major role in bone health. Both forms are available through the diet, and vitamin D3 is also formed in the skin via irradiation of 7‑dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 with subsequent thermal isomerisation. In general, humans derive the majority of their vitamin D requirement from the latter route, as unsupplemented foods contain only modest levels. The main biological function of vitamin D is controlling the absorption, transport, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus as part of bone mineralisation. In addition to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased rates of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The accurate analysis of vitamin D3 in foods is challenging; aside from irreversible loss of vitamin D3 through oxidative degradation, the reversible isomerisation of vitamin D3 to previtamin D3 is thermally induced, changing the relative proportion of each until equilibrium is reached.

A rapid method for the determination of vitamin D3 in milk and infant formula by LC‑MS Analysis of vitamin D2 and D3 in infant formula and nutritional powders by LC‑MS: First Action 2016.05 The determination of vitamin D3 and 25‑hydroxyvitamin D3 in early lactation and seasonal bovine milk Analysis of vitamin D in infant formula and nutritional powders by LC‑MS: Single Laboratory Validation; First Action 2016.05 Analysis of Vitamin D2 and D3 in infant formula and nutritional powders by LC‑MS: a multilaboratory testing study Significance of previtamin D chromatographic resolution in the accurate determination of vitamin‑D3 by LC‑UV Differential thermal isomerization: its role in the analysis of vitamin D3 in foods


Participation as subject matter expert in collaborative meetings to develop reference analytical methods within regulatory framework.

The choice of method for a specific component of a food sample is often made easier by use of standard reference methods. These methods provide accurate numerical values of the analyte being measured, with the accuracy being rigorously demonstrated by a variety of statistical techniques. The requirement of demonstrated accuracy is of major importance if a method is to act as the definitive technique upon which reference materials and other methods are compared. Creating new reference methods that are valid and have international acceptance requires many experienced analysts working collaboratively to provide an independant and thorough assessment of method performance charactristics before making a judgement of its sutiability for use as the bench-mark for adoption by the scientific community.

Evaluation protocol for the review of method validation data by the SPIFAN Expert Review Panel. Nucleotides in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula: AOAC Official Method 2011.20 Infant formula--determination of nucleotides by LC‑UV: ISO Standard 20638:2015 Vitamin D2 and D3 in fortified milk powders and infant and nutritional formulas: AOAC Official Method 2016.05 Infant formula and adult nutritionals--determination of vitamin D by LC‑MS: ISO Standard 20636:2018

I am passionate about the development of modern instrumental methods for analysis of micronutrients in dairy products and how these can be used to benefit and advance infant nutrition.


The application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantitative analysis of small molecules.

Vitamin E

The advances in chromatographic technqiues and their application to the separation of tocopherol stereoisomers.

α‑Tocopherol can exist as eight possible stereoisomers due to the presence of three chiral carbons. Regulations and industry guidelines necessitate that dietary vitamin E intakes be based on the vitamin E activity of RRR‑tocopherol. Food products fortified with synthetic all‑rac‑α‑tocopherol or all‑rac‑α‑tocopheryl acetate during manufacturing will require chiral separation of the α‑tocopherol stereoisomers for accurate estimation of vitamin E activity.

Separation of all‑rac‑α‑tocopherol by chiral chromatography Analysis of α‑tocopherol stereoisomers in fortified infant formula by chiral chromatography


Quantitative analysis of whey and casein proteins in milk.

Bovine milk contains approximately 3.4% protein made up of two main types: casein (80%) and whey protein (20%). Caseins are proteins that become coagulated and precipitated from skim milk when the pH of milk is adjusted to pH 4.6. Whey proteins remain soluble at pH 4.6 and includes β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, immunoglobulin, and lactoferrin.

An optical biosensor-based immunoassay for the determination of bovine serum albumin in milk and milk products The β‑lactoglobulin content of bovine milk: development and application of a biosensor immunoassay The determination of intact β‑casein in milk products by biosensor immunoassay


Developent and application of methods for the analysis of pseudo-vitamins in milk and dairy products.

Pseudovitamin is a unofficial term used to refer to any molecule that is not an essential vitamin or mineral yet is similarly vital in the body. Unlike the essential nutrients, deficiencies do not result in disease states. Some pseudovitamins are considered conditionally essential nutrients as they are ordinarily produced by the body in amounts sufficient to meet its physiological requirements, however under physiologically stressful conditions, their biosynthesis may be inadequate. There is a need for an accurate, precise, and rapid methods for the analysis of pseudo-vitamins in nutrional products. These methods can be used for routine analysis of nutritional products and also to study their levels in bovine milk across a production season.

The free and total myo‑inositol contents of early lactation and seasonal bovine milk Comparison of LC‑MS/MS and enzymatic methods for the determination of choline and carnitine in dairy products


Dairy product quality using screening of aroma compounds by selected ion flow tube‒mass spectrometry: A chemometric approach

Wood, J.E.; Gill, B.D.; Longstaff, W.M.; Crawford, R.A.; Indyk, H.E.; Kissling, R.C.; Yi-Hsuan Lin, Y.-H.; Bergonia, C.A.; Davis, L.M.; Matuszek, A. (2021). Int. Dairy J. 121, 105107.

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Aflatoxin M1 binding to bovine α- and κ‑caseins demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance

Indyk, H.E.; Wood, J.E.; Gill, B.D.(2021). Int. Dairy J. 121, 105119.

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Determination of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk, cheese, and selected milk proteins by automated online immunoaffinity cleanup with liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection

Wood, J.E.; Gill, B.D.; Indyk, H.E.; Rhemrev, R.; Pazdanska, M.; Mackay, N.; Marley, E.(2021). J. AOAC Int. 104, 719–724.

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Measuring micronutrients in milk—a dream job for chemistry alumnus

Story available on, Jun 15th 2021, Hamilton, New Zealand (story by UoW staff).

LinkedIn     Website     Story

Gill named chair-elect of AOAC editorial board

Inside Laboratory Management, Jul/Aug 2020, AOAC International: Rockville, MD, pp 12–14 (story by AOAC staff)


Profiles of the Waikato regions' scientists

Dr. Brendon Gill. Video available from courtesy of The Kudos Trust

Photo     Video

Scientist earns Kudos for his work

Matamata Chronicle, Oct 10th 2018, Matamata, New Zealand, p13 (story by E. Hill)



  • Senior Research Scienist
  • New Zealand