Brendon Gill

PhD FAOACI

Analytical Chemist

Hello! I’m Dr. Brendon Gill, a Senior Research Scientist based in the Fonterra Nutritionals Laboratory at Waitoa, New Zealand. I am passionate about food chemistry and the application of analytical techniques to furthering our understanding of milk, in particular, the micronutrient composition of dairy foods. A key focus of my work is the development of analytical methods to facilitate demonstrating product compliance against strict global regulations for infant formula. I routinely participate as a technical expert within international standards organisations in the development of reference standards for the analysis of vitamin and micronutrients in infant formula and adult nutritional products.

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Latest publications in press:

Analysis of α‑tocopherol stereoisomers in fortified infant formula by chiral chromatography

Quantitation of vitamin K in milk products by pre-column reduction HPLC-fluorescence

Determination of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk, cheese, and selected milk proteins by automated online immunoaffinity cleanup with liquid chromatography‒fluorescence detection

Research

Nucleotides

The variation of nucleotides in mammalian milk and the effect of dietary nucleotides on infant nutrition.

Nucleosides and nucleotides are a group of structurally related bioactive components present that exhibit a diverse range of nutritional benefits to infants. The nucleotide content in milk and the health benefits these impart have been fertile topics of research in recent years. Due to the role nucleotides play in metabolism, and in order to resemble more closely the nucleotide profile of human milk, infant formula has been routinely supplemented with nucleotides. There is a distinct need for an accurate and precise rapid, analytical method for the routine product compliance analysis of nucleotides in a wide range of infant formula. The development of an analytical method to measure total potentially available nucleotide has been an important contribution to further understanding the distribution of nucleosides and nucleotides, which has important implications for infant nutrition.

Development of an HPLC method for analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in milk and infant formulas Determination of nucleotides and nucleosides in milks and pediatric formulas: a review. An HPLC method for routine analysis of nucleotides in pediatric formulas. Determination of total potentially available nucleosides in bovine milk. Analysis of nucleotides in infant formula formula by HPLC: First Action 2011.20. Determination of total potentially available nucleosides in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk. Analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in infant formula by LC-MS. Analysis of nucleotides in infant formulas by HPLC-UV: collaborative study.

Vitamin B12

The challenges and techniques used for the analysis of vitamin B12 dairy products and other foods.

Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in human metabolism and is an essential vitamin obtained predominantly from food of animal origin. Amongst all animal products, naturally occurring vitamin B12 in milk has the highest bioavailability and dairy products are a broad-access source, especially for vegetarian individuals. The dairy industry requires an accurate and highly sensitive detection method for vitamin B12, however the extremely low concentration and instability of vitamin B12 creates challenges in analysis.

The analysis of vitamin B12 in milk and infant formula: a review

Vitamin D

The challenges and techniques used for the analysis of vitamin D in dairy products and other foods.

Vitamin D as ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3), is a secosterol that plays a major role in bone health. Both forms are available through the diet, and vitamin D3 is also formed in the skin via irradiation of 7‑dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3 with subsequent thermal isomerisation. In general, humans derive the majority of their vitamin D requirement from the latter route, as unsupplemented foods contain only modest levels. The main biological function of vitamin D is controlling the absorption, transport, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus as part of bone mineralisation. In addition to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased rates of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The accurate analysis of vitamin D3 in foods is challenging; aside from irreversible loss of vitamin D3 through oxidative degradation, the reversible isomerisation of vitamin D3 to previtamin D3 is thermally induced, changing the relative proportion of each until equilibrium is reached.

A rapid method for the determination of vitamin D3 in milk and infant formula by LC‑MS Analysis of vitamin D3 and D3 in infant formula and nutritional powders by LC‑MS The determination of vitamin D3 and 25‑hydroxyvitamin D3 in early lactation and seasonal bovine milk Analysis of vitamin D2 and D3 in infant formula and nutritional powders by LC‑MS: First Action Method 2016.05 Analysis of Vitamin D2 and D3 in infant formula and nutritional powders by LC‑MS: a multilaboratory testing study Significance of previtamin D chromatographic resolution in the accurate determination of vitamin‑D3 by LC‑UV Differential thermal isomerization: its role in the analysis of vitamin D3 in foods Assessment of regulatory compliance testing for vitamin D in infant formula: impact of Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/828

Reference Standards

Participation as subject matter expert in collaborative meetings to develop reference analytical methods within regulatory framework.

The choice of method for a specific component of a food sample is often made easier by use of standard reference methods. These methods provide accurate numerical values of the analyte being measured, with the accuracy being rigorously demonstrated by a variety of statistical techniques. The requirement of demonstrated accuracy is of major importance if a method is to act as the definitive technique upon which reference materials and other methods are compared. Creating new reference methods that are valid and have international acceptance requires many experienced analysts working collaboratively to provide an independant and thorough assessment of method performance charactristics before making a judgement of its sutiability for use as the bench-mark for adoption by the scientific community.

Evaluation protocol for the review of method validation data by the SPIFAN Expert Review Panel. Nucleotides in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula: AOAC Official Method 2011.20 Infant formula--determination of nucleotides by LC‑UV: ISO Standard 20638:2015 Vitamin D2 and D3 in fortified milk powders and infant and nutritional formulas: AOAC Official Method 2016.05 Infant formula and adult nutritionals--determination of vitamin D by LC‑MS: ISO Standard 20636:2018

I am passionate about the development of modern instrumental methods for analysis of micronutrients in dairy products and how these can be used to benefit and advance infant nutrition.

LC‑MS

The application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantitative analysis of small molecules.

Publications

Sunflower

Differential thermal isomerization: its role in the analysis of vitamin D3 in foods

Gill, B.D.; Abernethy, G.A.; Indyk, H.E.; Wood, J.E.; Woollard, D.C. (2020) J. AOAC Int. 103, 563–569. doi.org/10.1093/jaocint/qsz001


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Sparkle

A rapid method for the determination of vitamin D3 in milk and infant formula by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Gill, B.D.; Zhu, X.; Indyk, H.E. (2015) J. AOAC Int. 98, 431–435. doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.14-183


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Dewdrops

Development and application of a liquid chromatographic method for analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in milk and infant formulas

Gill, B.D.; Indyk, H.E. (2007) Int. Dairy J. 17, 596–605. doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2006.08.001


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Education

  • 2013

    Doctor of Philosophy | PhD
    University of Waikato, New Zealand

    School of Science and Technology—Thesis topic: Analysis of Nucleosides and Nucleotides in Milk and Infant Formula

  • 2001

    Graduate Diploma of Teaching | GradDipT
    University of Waikato, New Zealand

    School of Education—Secondary education

  • 2000

    Master of Science with Honours | MSc(hons)
    University of Waikato, New Zealand

    School of Science and Technology—Thesis topic: Analysis of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Curing by Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

  • 1998

    Bachelor of Science | BSc
    University of Waikato, New Zealand

    School of Science and Technology—Chemistry major

Career

Media

Gill named chair-elect of AOAC editorial board

Inside Laboratory Management, Jul/Aug 2020, AOAC International: Rockville, MD, pp 12–14 (story by AOAC staff)

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Letters

Profiles of the Waikato regions' scientists

Dr. Brendon Gill. Video available from www.thekudos.org.nz courtesy of The Kudos Trust

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Globe

Scientist earns Kudos for his work

Matamata Chronicle, Oct 10th 2018, Matamata, New Zealand, p13 (story by E. Hill)

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Blog

  • 14 Jan 2021

    Paper accepted for publication

    Paper accepted for publication entitled "Analysis of α‑tocopherol stereoisomers in fortified infant formula by chiral chromatography" to be published in the Journal of AOAC International. This paper describes the development of a chiral LC‑UV for the determination of α‑tocopherol stereoisomers in fortified infant formula.

  • 20 Nov 2020

    Paper accepted for publication

    Another paper accepted for publication entitled "Determination of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk, cheese, and selected milk proteins by automated online immunoaffinity cleanup with liquid chromatography‒fluorescence detection" to be published in the Journal of AOAC International. This paper discusses the development of a high-throughput, routine testing of AFM1 using RIDA®CREST IMMUNOPREP® online cartridges followed by quantitation by HPLC-fluorescence.

  • 21 Sept 2020

    Paper accepted for publication

    Another paper accepted for publication entitled "Colorimetry of dairy products" to be published in the International Dairy Journal. This paper discusses the use of a colorimeter to measure the colour of various dairy products instead of the human eye with comparison to reference colour charts.

Contact

  • Senior Research Scienist
  • New Zealand