Differential thermal isomerization: its role in the analysis of vitamin D3 in foods
Gill, B.D.; Abernethy, G.A.; Indyk, H.E.; Wood, J.E.; Woollard, D.C. (2020) J. AOAC Int. 103, 563–569. doi.org/10.1093/jaocint/qsz001
Background: For nutritional purposes, the measurement of vitamin D3 (defined as the sum of vitamin D3 and previtamin D3) is required to obtain an accurate and reliable estimate of its content in foods. An often neglected aspect in the development of methods for the analysis of vitamin D3 is accounting for any potential analytical bias in the results associated with differential thermal isomerization between previtamin D and vitamin D. Conclusions: For LC‑UV methods using a vitamin D2 internal standard, cold saponification or direct lipid extraction techniques should be avoided, unless chromatographic separation of vitamin D2, vitamin D3, and their previtamin forms is achieved so that UV absorbance corrections can be made. For both LC‑UV and LC‑MS methods using calciferol internal standards, the simplest solution to avoid analytical bias due to the presence of previtamin D is to utilize heating conditions (typically during saponification) such that previtamin D and vitamin D in the sample and the internal standard reach an equivalent equilibrium state prior to instrumental analysis. Only under such circumstances is the integration of previtamin D unnecessary to obtain accurate results for vitamin D3. Highlights: A detailed discussion of the quantitation of vitamin D3 in food with concise recommendations for avoiding measurement bias as a consequence of differential thermal isomerization.